Technically speaking, yes!
That’s why it is very important that users trust their VPN providers. In fact, VPN users must avoid trusting VPN providers that offer free VPN services.
However, it all comes down to how your VPN provider deals with your data.
At CasperVPN, we do not keep any online activity logs for our users under any circumstances. CasperVPN has built its VPN infrastructure in a way that our VPN operators themselves are not capable of tracking users or storing any logs. And in order to make our users feel more secure and have trust in us, we are ready and open to give our users answers and data proving our extremely secure infrastructure whenever needed @ firstname.lastname@example.org.
At the end of the day security, liability and privacy is why we exist.